Tetragonia is a genus of about 85 species of flowering plants in the family Aizoaceae, native to temperate and subtropical regions, most of the Southern Hemisphere, in New Zealand, Australia, southern Africa, and South America.
Plants of the Tetragonia genus are herbs or small shrubs. Leaves are alternate and succulent, with flowers typically yellow in color and small in size. Flowers can be axillary, solitary or fasciculate, greenish or yellowish, and mostly bisexual. Fruits are initially succulent but become dry and woody with age. The genus name comes from "tetragonus," meaning "four-angled" and referring to the shape of the plants' fruits.
The best-known species of Tetragonia is the leafy vegetable food crop, Tetragonia tetragonioides, commonly known as New Zealand Spinach, widely cultivated as a summer leafy vegetable. However, some other species are also eaten locally, such as Tetragonia decumbens, commonly known as Dune Spinach, a local delicacy in its native southern Africa.
Growing Conditions and General Care
New Zealand Spinach is grown for the edible leaves and can be used as food or as an ornamental plant for ground cover. As some of its names signify, it has similar flavor and texture properties to spinach and is cooked like spinach. Like spinach, it contains oxalates. Its medium to low oxalate levels needs to be removed by blanching the leaves in hot water for one minute, then rinsing in cold water before cooking. It can be found as an invasive plant in North and South America and cultivated along the East Asian rim. It thrives in hot weather and is considered an heirloom vegetable. Few insects consume it, and even slugs and snails do not seem to feed on it.
The thick, irregularly-shaped seeds should be planted just after the last spring frost. Before planting, the seeds should be soaked for 12 hours in cold water or 3 hours in warm water. Seeds should be planted 0.2 to 0.4 inches (5 to 10 mm) deep and spaced 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) apart. The seedlings will emerge in 10 to 20 days, and they will continue to produce greens through the summer.
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